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Virtual Reality: Where it is and where it's going

VR is not what a lot of people think it is. It's not comparable to racing wheels, Kinect, or 3DTVs. It offers a shift that the game industry hasn't had before; a first of it's kind. I'm going to outline what VR is like today in despite of the many misconceptions around it and what it will be like as it grows. What people find to be insurmountable problems are often solvable.
What is VR in 2020?
Something far more versatile and far-reaching than people comprehend. All game genres and camera perspectives work, so you're still able to access the types of games you've always enjoyed. It is often thought that VR is a 1st person medium and that's all it can do, but 3rd person and top-down VR games are a thing and in various cases are highly praised. Astro Bot, a 3rd person platformer, was the highest rated VR game before Half-Life: Alyx.
Lets crush some misconceptions of 2020 VR:
So what are the problems with VR in 2020?
Despite these downsides, VR still offers something truly special. What it enables is not just a more immersive way to game, but new ways to feel, to experience stories, to cooperate or fight against other players, and a plethora of new ways to interact which is the beating heart of gaming as a medium.
To give some examples, Boneworks is a game that has experimental full body physics and the amount of extra agency it provides is staggering. When you can actually manipulate physics on a level this intimately where you are able to directly control and manipulate things in a way that traditional gaming simply can't allow, it opens up a whole new avenue of gameplay and game design.
Things aren't based on a series of state machines anymore. "Is the player pressing the action button to climb this ladder or not?" "Is the player pressing the aim button to aim down the sights or not?"
These aren't binary choices in VR. Everything is freeform and you can basically be in any number of states at a given time. Instead of climbing a ladder with an animation lock, you can grab on with one hand while aiming with the other, or if it's physically modelled, you could find a way to pick it up and plant it on a pipe sticking out of the ground to make your own makeshift trap where you spin it around as it pivots on top of the pipe, knocking anything away that comes close by. That's the power of physics in VR. You do things you think of in the same vain as reality instead of thinking inside the set limitations of the designers. Even MGSV has it's limitations with the freedom it provides, but that expands exponentially with 6DoF VR input and physics.
I talked about how VR could make you feel things. A character or person that gets close to you in VR is going to invade your literal personal space. Heights are possibly going to start feeling like you are biologically in danger. The idea of tight spaces in say, a horror game, can cause claustrophobia. The way you move or interact with things can give off subtle almost phantom-limb like feelings because of the overwhelming visual and audio stimulation that enables you to do things that you haven't experienced with your real body; an example being floating around in zero gravity in Lone Echo.
So it's not without it's share of problems, but it's an incredibly versatile gaming technology in 2020. It's also worth noting just how important it is as a non-gaming device as well, because there simply isn't a more suitably combative device against a world-wide pandemic than VR. Simply put, it's one of the most important devices you can get right now for that reason alone as you can socially connect with no distancing with face to face communication, travel and attend all sorts of events, and simply manage your mental and physical health in ways that the average person wishes so badly for right now.
Where VR is (probably) going to be in 5 years
You can expect a lot. A seismic shift that will make the VR of today feel like something very different. This is because the underlying technology is being reinvented with entirely custom tech that no longer relies on cell phone panels and lenses that have existed for decades.
That's enough to solve almost all the issues of the technology and make it a buy-in for the average gamer. In 5 years, we should really start to see the blending of reality and virtual reality and how close the two can feel
Where VR is (probably) going to be in 10 years
In short, as good as if not better than the base technology of Ready Player One which consists of a visor and gloves. Interestingly, RPO missed out on the merging of VR and AR which will play an important part of the future of HMDs as they will become more versatile, easier to multi-task with, and more engrained into daily life where physical isolation is only a user choice. Useful treadmills and/or treadmill shoes as well as haptic suits will likely become (and stay) enthusiast items that are incredible in their own right but due to the commitment, aren't applicable to the average person - in a way, just like RPO.
At this stage, VR is mainstream with loads of AAA content coming out yearly and providing gaming experiences that are incomprehensible to most people today.
Overall, the future of VR couldn't be brighter. It's absolutely here to stay, it's more incredible than people realize today, and it's only going to get exponentially better and more convenient in ways that people can't imagine.
submitted by DarthBuzzard to truegaming [link] [comments]

r/pharmacy 2020 demographics survey results!

The pharmacy 2020 demographics survey results are here! There were 258 respondents this year. Please note that the numbers will not necessarily add up to 100%, since all questions were optional. Sorry in advance for the crappy Excel graphs.
Most respondents hailed from the US (233; 90.3%), followed by Canada (10; 3.9%), United Kingdom (8; 3.1%), New Zealand (2; 0.8%), and 1 respondent each from Australia, Indonesia, Slovakia, Sweden, and Taiwan.
Of the 233 Americans, the top 3 states were California (20; 8.6%), Pennsylvania (18; 7.7%), and Texas (18; 7.7%).
The 10 Canadians were from Ontario (5; 50%), British Columbia (2; 20%), Alberta (1; 10%), Nova Scotia (1; 10%), and Quebec (1; 10%).
Of the 258 respondents, 130 (50.4%) identified as female, 123 (47.7%) as male, and 3 (1.2%) as non-binary.
Age distribution is shown in the below table. A few statistics: minimum 19, maximum 68, mean 29.0, median 28, mode 26.
In terms of race/ethnicity, the categories from most to least common were as follows: white (156; 60.5%), Asian (55; 21.3%), 2 or more races (11; 4.3%), black (9; 3.5%), Hispanic or Latino (8; 3.1%), Indian subcontinent (6; 2.3%), Arab (4; 1.6%), Native American or American Indian (2; 0.8%), and Armenian (1; 0.4%).
General employment questions
Of the 258 respondents, 169 (65.5%) were pharmacists, 55 (21.3%) were pharmacy students, 22 (8.5%) were non-pharmacist staff, and 8 (3.1%) were pre-pharmacy students. There were also 1 each of the following: corporate pharmacy compliance, pharmacy wholesaler, pharmacology student, and other healthcare professional.
Most respondents (169; 65.5%) were employed full time (defined as > 30 hours/week), while 19 (7.4%) were employed part time. 49 respondents (19.0%) were full time students (not necessarily in pharmacy), 13 (5.0%) were unemployed, 4 (1.6%) worked outside of the field of pharmacy, 2 (0.8%) were self-employed, 1 (0.4%) was retired, and 1 (0.4%) was consulting/contracting.
There was a nearly equal split between respondents working in suburban (99; 38.4%) vs. urban (97; 37.6%) locations, followed by 21 (8.1%) in rural locations and 15 (5.8%) working remotely (apologies - I should have made this question/response more clear, but based on a jump compared to last year's survey, I think people working from home temporarily due to COVID-19 may have chosen this option).
A pie chart of primary place of employment is shown below, with the top 7 responses shown in the legend: community/retail (136; 52.7%), hospital including outpatient (48; 18.6%), pharmaceutical industry including CROs (11; 4.3%), mail ordespecialty/home infusion (9; 3.5%), unemployed (8; 3.1%), long-term care/hospice (8; 3.1%), and ambulatory care (5; 1.9%). Please note that the unemployed category includes non-working full time students.
A small proportion (42; 16.3%) of respondents reported having a second job. Of these, the most common fields of employment were: hospital including outpatient (10; 23.8%), community/retail (8; 19.0%), and self employment/side hustle (7; 16.7%).
For the following charts, I only included those working full time. Below is a histogram for full time pharmacist salary worldwide, as well as a table showing some stats for global, US, and ex-US salaries.
Global (139 responses) US (130 responses) Ex-US (9 responses)
Minimum $11,000 $11,000 $43,050
Maximum $300,000 $300,000 $230,000
Mean $116,284 $118,909 $78,375
Median $120,000 $120,961 $63,000
Below is the histogram for full time non-pharmacist staff worldwide. There was only 1 ex-US respondent, so I didn't separate out the stats. Here they are: minimum $15,000; maximum $72,000; mean $37,767; median $37,000.
Community/retail pharmacy
The pie chart shown below shows the breakdown of pharmacy type for the 136 respondents working in community/retail pharmacy. I'm not exactly sure what Genoa means, so I left that one as is.
Roles within community/retail pharmacy are displayed below.
The pie chart below displays responses regarding the impact of COVID-19 on hours/salary.
Hospital pharmacy (including outpatient)
There were 48 respondents working in hospital pharmacy. Bed count at their institutions is shown in the graph below.
Roles within hospital pharmacy are displayed below.
Of the 38 hospital pharmacists, 13 (34.2%) had completed a residency, and 5 (13.2%) were currently completing a residency. The remainder (20; 52.6%) were not pursuing nor had ever completed a residency.
The top 3 clinical specialties were ambulatory care, emergency medicine, and oncology (3 respondents each). Note that it was possible to choose more than 1 specialty.
The pie chart below displays responses regarding the impact of COVID-19 on hours/salary.
Pharmaceutical industry (including CROs)
Eleven respondents (4.3%) reported working in the pharmaceutical industry. The breakdown by department is shown in the table below.
Department Number of Respondents
Drug Safety and Risk Management/Pharmacovigilance 2
Medical Communications/Education/Information 2
Regulatory Affairs 2
Clinical Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics 1
Clinical Research & Development (including Clinical Operations) 1
Formulation 1
Marketing/Business Analytics 1
Medical Science Liaison 1
The breakdown by level was as follows: PharmD Fellow (3; 27.3%), Associate/Specialist (6; 54.5%), ManageSupervisor (1; 9.1%), Director (1; 9.1%). Five respondents had completed or were currently completing a fellowship. Four of these 5 provided their salaries during their fellowships, with an average of $50,000.
Pharmacy and pre-pharmacy students
There were 63 respondents (24.4%) who reported being pharmacy or pre-pharmacy students. Of these, the top 3 desired fields upon graduation were: hospital including residencies (16; 25.4%), undecided (13; 20.6%), and community/retail (11; 17.5%).
These 63 students attended (or planned to attend) 45 different schools worldwide. The 5 most common schools reported were as follows: University of Toronto (3; 4.8%), Feik School of Pharmacy (2; 3.2%), Ohio State University (2; 3.2%), Temple University (2; 3.2%), and University of Colorado (2; 3.2%).
The breakdown by year was as follows: undergraduate/pre-pharmacy (8; 12.7%), PY1 (4; 6.3%), PY2 (18; 28.6%), PY3 (16; 25.4%), and PY4 (13; 20.6%). Of the 13 PY4 students, 2 reported having a job lined up after graduation, both in community/retail.
Most students (45; 71.4%) were working in a pharmacy setting while in school. Stats for the number of hours worked weekly were as follows: minimum 3; maximum 34; mean 15.8; median 15. The most common duties interns were authorized to perform at their jobs were counseling patients (38; 84.4%), administering immunizations (24; 53.3%), and product verification (17; 37.8%). Note that interns could choose more than 1 option.
Of the 63 students, 36 (57.1%) reported that they would choose to attend pharmacy school again if they could go back in time, knowing what they know now. Sixteen students (25.4%) reported that they would decide on a different career path, and 5 (7.9%) were unsure.
Following pharmacy school, some students were considering pursuing the following degrees (top 3 listed): MPH (6; 9.5%), MD (4; 6.3%), and MBA (3; 4.8%).
Results from additional questions are shown in chart form below.
There were 169 pharmacists, from 91 different pharmacy schools. The most common alma maters were Rutgers University Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy (RU RAH RAH!!) with 6 respondents (3.6%), University of Pittsburgh with 5 respondents (3.0%), and the following 5 schools with 4 respondents each: Northeastern University, Ohio Northern University, University of Colorado, University of Georgia, and University of Kansas.
Most pharmacists (152; 89.9%) were currently practicing pharmacy. Five (3.0%) had practiced in the past but were no longer practicing, and 10 (5.9%) had never practiced after graduating. Of those currently practicing pharmacy, the statistics on the number of years in practice were as follows: minimum 0.1; maximum 35; mean 4.8; and median 3.
Nearly half of pharmacists (75; 49.3%) said they would choose a different career path if they could go back in time, knowing what they know now, while 71 pharmacists (46.7%) said they would still choose to pursue pharmacy.
Local practice standards
About half of pharmacists (84; 55.3%) reported administering (or being allowed to administer) many types of immunizations, while 3 (2.0%) reported that pharmacists were not allowed in their location. A further 63 pharmacists (41.4%) did not administer immunizations simply because it was not part of their job description (eg, hospital inpatient).
Regarding therapeutic interchange for non-controlled prescriptions, 63 pharmacists (41.4%) reporting being authorized to update a prescription only after consulting the prescriber. An additional 43 pharmacists (28.3%) were allowed to update a prescription as long as the prescriber was notified afterwards (ie, without prior permission), and 8 pharmacists (5.3%) were allowed per institutional protocol or collaborative practice agreement. Twenty-four pharmacists (15.8%) reported that a new prescription would be required and that no updates by the pharmacist were allowed.
For controlled prescriptions, 24 pharmacists (15.8%) reported being allowed to change any/all elements of the prescription following consultation with the prescriber, and 4 pharmacists (2.6%) were allowed per institutional protocol or collaborative practice agreement. Sixty-six pharmacists (43.4%) were allowed to change certain (but not all) elements, while 40 (26.3%) could not change any part of a controlled prescription and required the prescriber to issue a new one.
Regarding pharmacist prescribing, most pharmacists (110; 72.4%) were not allowed to prescribe medications. Nineteen pharmacists (12.5%) could prescribe for certain health conditions, 3 (2.0%) could prescribe for any health condition, and 2 (1.3%) could prescribe per institutional protocol or collaborative practice agreement.
Results from additional questions are shown in chart form below.
Pharmacy residents
Of the 169 pharmacists, 31 (18.3%) had completed or were currently completing a pharmacy residency. Of those, there were 6 current PGY-1 residents and 1 current PGY-2 resident.
Of the 24 pharmacists who had completed their PGY-1 residencies, most (18; 75%) did rotational programs without a specific focus. The remaining 6 pharmacists specialized in the following areas during their PGY-1: ambulatory care (2; 8.3%), community pharmacy (1; 4.2%), managed care (1; 4.2%), pediatrics (1; 4.2%), and pharmacotherapy (1; 4.2%). Stats on their PGY-1 salaries were as follows: minimum $33,000; maximum $60,000; mean $44,325; median $45,000. These PGY-1 residencies were done primarily in an urban setting (18; 75%), followed by suburban (3; 12.5%) and rural (2; 8.3%).
Of the 11 pharmacists who had completed their PGY-2 residencies, the specialties included: ambulatory care (3; 27.3%), psychiatry (2; 18.2%), and 1 each of administration, critical care, emergency medicine, infectious disease, oncology, and pharmacotherapy (9.1% each). Stats on their PGY-2 salaries were as follows: minimum $35,000; maximum $51,000; mean $45,625; median $46,500. These PGY-2 residencies were done almost equally in urban (6; 54.5%) and suburban (5; 45.5%) settings.
The 6 current PGY-1 residents had the following plans immediately following their PGY-1: inpatient staff pharmacist (2; 33.3%), PGY-2 residency (2; 33.3%), inpatient clinical specialty pharmacist (1; 16.7%), and non-practicing pharmacist (1; 16.7%).
Of those who had completed their residencies, their roles immediately afterward are listed in the table below.
Role Number of Respondents
Inpatient staff pharmacist 8
Inpatient clinical specialty pharmacist 6
Ambulatory care pharmacist 4
Unemployed 2
Outpatient pharmacist (eg, retail, mail order, long term care) 1
Stopped practicing but remained in the field of pharmacy (eg, industry) 1
Industry fellowship 1
Drug information pharmacist 1
Pharmacy organizations
This question was directed toward American respondents. There were 96 respondents who reported being currently active members of an association, the most common of which were ASHP (39; 40.6%), APhA (38; 39.6%), and a local/state pharmacy association (29; 30.2%).
There were 35 respondents who reported previously being members of an association, the most common of which were APhA (25; 71.4%), ASHP (15; 42.9%), and a local/state pharmacy association (13; 37.1%).
Final comments
Thanks again to everyone who took the survey, and especially those who provided feedback!
I totally acknowledge that the survey is very US-centric, and for that I apologize. I did take some feedback from some people in this subreddit, but if anyone ex-US wants to provide feedback for any future surveys, I'm happy to speak with you offline about it.
The same also goes for anyone in a "niche" field such as long-term care, ambulatory care, managed care, etc. I'm happy to add in new sections or questions for those fields - it's just that I have no idea what to ask, having no experience in those areas.
There are probably a few questions whose answers aren't reflected here mainly because this is long enough already, but if you have any questions (eg, what's the average salary for a hospital pharmacist in a suburban area?), please feel free to ask!
Thanks again!
submitted by fleakered to pharmacy [link] [comments]

ASLAproject - a new empire in the decentralized environment of the cryptocurrency world

ASLAproject - a new empire in the decentralized environment of the cryptocurrency world
Our experts are capable of providing any advises and help to anyone who wants to join the project. We promise that our projects are not only profitable but also breathtaking. We are developing every day, do not miss the opportunity to be part of a grand project with a great future.
ASLAproject is
A decentralized ecosystem of products based on smart contracts of the Tron blockchain project for earning profit and further investing. We, the development team, are working to improve the ecosystem and develop its products. Our main task today is to create the best environment for the users to acquire money. At the same time, we do not conduct ICO and crowdfunding.
The goal is to create and implement an ecosystem with constantly updated products for your earnings, develop and implement tools for business and beyond. Much has already been done, but more still needs to be done.
Today, tokens cost less than what you want, but prices are already rising due to new product releases and community / project partners that form a solid foundation for future achievements.

Tokens and products
Our project is based on two coins that focus on all ecosystem products: ASLA and ASLAgame (Aga).
1. ASLAtrade is a binary options trading platform.
ASLA is a token attached to the ASLAtrade platform, which is extracted through a unique mining system through binary options trading. In the image below, you can see the required amount of TRX spent to get a single token. Every day this amount is increasing.
Below is the menu for determining the freezing/withdrawal of tokens:
  1. When decent amount of tokens is frozen, it pays back with dividends that are collected in 40% from the platform's total pool.
  2. By withdrawing tokens to your wallet, the user receives dividends in the form of Aga tokens, which are linked to our products such as messenger, games, etc.
ASLA holders have implemented a feature that allows them to mine Aga tokens when in frozen state:
- Purchased ASLA in frozen state gives 20% of Aga tokens;
- Mined ASLA on the platform gives 25% of Aga tokens.
• Trading on three cryptocurrency pairs: BTC, ETH, BTH with a choice of different transaction duration
• Freeze ASLA to receive dividends in the form of TRX/Aga of the total pool platform
• Withdrawal of ASLA for trading on exchanges, or receiving dividends in the form of Aga tokens for storing tokens on the wallet

2. ASLAbet is the first cryptocurrency tote with a wide range of functions based on smart contracts.
Our team is working on the ecosystem for maximum benefit to the project users.
We present the ASLAbet cryptocurrency tote based on betting against people, not against the company! Bets on popular matches and favorite teams, winning percentages are formed automatically depending on the size of the bet and the number of players.
We do not limit ourselves to one direction, but also understand the interests of users. For this case, everyone will have the opportunity to create their own event, for which they will eventually receive a reward if it passes a vote among the community.
On the example of the recent match between Alexander Emelianenko and Magomed Ismailov, all those who put their bets on Alexander's victory completely lost their funds. With our platform, you would start returning your lost funds the next day, thanks to the Aga coin you received.
• Reward for each bet in the form of Aga tokens with an initial turnover of 100 TRX = 1 Aga. The mining difficulty will increase daily by 1 TRX.
• Even if you lose your bet when you freeze Aga coins, you will receive 30% of the profit from commissions.
• Referral system 15% of the system's profit.
Link: aslabet.comOfficial channel:

3. ASLA Messenger is a messenger with functionality for earning project tokens.
Literally everyone uses messengers and communicates with their loved ones on a regular basis. We have made sure that you get paid for this. Communicate and earn - the perfect combination for the user.
At this stage, an alpha version of the app has been released for use with the earnings feature already available. The beta version is expected to include audio and video calls, a more functional interface, chats and channels, and much more.
• Complete tasks inside the messenger to get rewards in the form of Aga tokens.
• The most convenient and modern design of the app.
• Withdrawal of earned tokens to your wallet.
Play Market:
App Store:

4. Games based on blockchain technology for earning cryptocurrency
Today, games are of great importance, this is a new way of gaming, in which we want to participate. Our main goal is to implement a gaming platform with games for earning money. Play with your friends, compete against the best players and earn cryptocurrency for winning your favorite games.
Currently in development are games such as "Heads and Tails", "Rock, paper, scissors", Dice, backgammon, chess, and larger projects – shooters with maximum gameplay, etc.
• A set of games of various genres with earnings
• Competitions, tournaments and other events with rewards in case of winnings
• Maximum decentralization and the ability to view all smart contracts
Earn money with us just playing, it's really easy!

5. ASLAbank - is a cryptocurrency bank for users with broad functionality.
The project team is developing a unique cryptocurrency bank for the community. The product's idea is that users will be able to borrow cryptocurrency with different priority from ASLA token holders. The user's reputation will grow with the number of completed applications.
All permits, lawyers, consulting. Everything is in the legal field of Russia. We aim to cooperate on a long-term basis within the framework of current legislation on the territory of the Russian Federation.

6. ASLAforum - is a project forum for discussing Internet industry projects.
There are many developing projects in the digital world that have a place to be known to their users, and these are Russian-language projects. To do this, a forum for reviews, analyses and discussions of these projects will soon be implemented, where users will earn cryptocurrency for this.
The main goal of the forum is to provide the community with visibility of all worthy projects, both those that have just started their existence and those that have years of work behind them. Consulting, assistance, training, as well as personal webinars from the project on the topic of earnings will be in one area. Users will be able to discuss, review, and share their thoughts about a particular project so that it can get a well-deserved reputation.

Today, you can buy ASLA coins on two exchanges:
Poloni Dex:

Our project is open for suggestions and cooperation.
If you wish, you can become a partner of ASLAproject and get mutually beneficial opportunities for your goals.
To contact us: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])

Our plans for the future are reflected in the roadmap. Subscribe to our social networks to keep up to date with all the project news, as well as not to miss important information, live broadcasts and interviews with project representatives.
Ask the team a question or contact support:
Official website:
submitted by ASLA_Project to u/ASLA_Project [link] [comments]

ASLA / Aga — prospects and benefits

ASLA / Aga — prospects and benefits
This article will cover all the functionality and features of the ASLA / Aga tokens of the ASLAproject.
The very first token released was the ASLA token, originally linked to the binary options trading platform ASLAtrade. It is ASLA that allows you to mine the Aga token (will be discussed later). The user has the ability to mine, trade on exchanges, and freeze ASLA.
Aga, or ASLAgame, is a game token that belongs to the project products and opens additional functions in conjunction with ASLA. When tokens are frozen on the gaming platform, Aga gives daily rewards as a percentage of all frozen game tokens.
Aga will be accepted as payment for pumping your account in games, and will also be an in-game exchange token.

Trading, freezing, rewards
ASLA tokens are received at the expense of your bets on binary options. In the future, it will be possible to mine on ASLAdice. It is the mined tokens that bring more prospects for users than those purchased on the exchange. There are two options for freezing ASLA.
Consider the first option. The ASLA token mined on the platform allows you to receive TRX in the amount of 25% of the total platform pool, as well as 25% of Aga tokens (monthly) for 1 year. Each year, the percentage will decrease up to 10% (each year a decrease of 5%). In addition, these tokens will bring 5% of the dividend pool in the ASLAdice game. Link:
Consider the second option. Many players brought ASLA to the exchange in order to fix short-term profits. As a result, the purchased ASLA on the exchange may also be frozen. The frozen ASLA tokens allows you to receive 20% of Aga tokens (monthly) for 1 year. Each year, the percentage will decrease up to 5% (each year a decrease of 5%). Link: Why do I need Aga tokens?
Aga is a platform game token, when frozen, the user will receive rewards in the form of TRX from absolutely all games of the ASLAproject platform, the ASLAbet sweepstake, as well as other future products such as ASLAforum, ASLAcasino and so on.
Getting Aga tokens:
1) Scroll TRX in the equivalent of 1 Aga = 100 TRX with a daily increase of 1 TRX. The higher the bids, the more tokens;
2) When freezing ASLA tokens, the user receives monthly rewards in the form of Aga in the amount of 20% (purchased ASLA) and 25% (mined ASLA) of the total number;
3) Token trading on the exchange in the near future;
4) Getting tokens for communication and completing tasks in ASLA Messenger.

Exchanges and other
You can purchase ASLA on exchanges: Poloni Dex: NoleX: ASLA Messenger in the Play Market: ASLA Messenger in the App Store:
Official website: Contact us: Mail: [email protected]
submitted by ASLA_Project to u/ASLA_Project [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RCA NTSC+PAL v3.0F - America & Europe Unite!

CRTPi Project Presents:


A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 886769NTSC/868059PAL KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles (PAL SNES & Mega-CD)
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme @ 480i
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 2.5X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with KALEL1981's Super-Retroboy theme (default)
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p Honey and Bubblegum themes
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RCA NTSC v3.0F: For Raspberry Pi3B Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 438d69a38b6085d2c5be30fbd43e2b43 
CRTPi-RCA PAL v3.0F: For Raspberry Pi3B Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: 5f76241b4ba75e95b597642cea8eb242 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the with the command:
    sudo wget
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
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Полезно. ПО Fawkes - клоакинг фотографий для защиты от систем распознавания лиц. Защитите ваши фото ! Скачать ПО Fawkes. Как использовать ПО Fawkes установка. Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy. Fawkes Usage - Setup Instructions

Как защититься от системы распознавания лиц при помощи ПО Fawkes
Как защититься от массовой слежки и идентификации людей по лицу

Полезно. ПО Fawkes - клоакинг фотографий для защиты от систем распознавания лиц. Защитите ваши фото !
Скачать ПО Fawkes. Как использовать ПО Fawkes , установка.
Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy. Fawkes Usage - Setup Instructions

Алгоритм Fawkes эффективно подрывает базу обучения «вражеской» нейросети. Перед публикацией каждой фотографии в ней делаются незаметные попиксельные изменения, после чего она становится не то что непригодной для использования при обучении, а буквально портит систему распознавания лиц.

Обработайте ваши фотографии с помощью Fawkes -> Загружайте ваши фото в социальные сети


Fawkes - Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy
For more information about the project, please refer to our project webpage

Как использовать ПО Fawkes и установка - Fawkes Usage - Setup Instructions

Инструкции по установке Fawkes Setup Instructions
Publication & Presentation - PDF
Fawkes: Protecting Personal Privacy against Unauthorized Deep Learning Models.
Shawn Shan, Emily Wenger, Jiayun Zhang, Huiying Li, Haitao Zheng, and Ben Y. Zhao.
In Proceedings of USENIX Security Symposium 2020. ( Download PDF here )

Frequently Asked Questions


Скачать ПО Fawkes:

Downloads and Source Code - Version 0.3 (July 2020)

Download the Fawkes Software:

Fawkes.dmg for Mac (v0.3)
DMG file with installer app
Compatibility: MacOS 10.13, 10.14, 10.15

Fawkes.exe for Windows (v0.3)
EXE file
Compatibility: Windows 10

Бинарник для Mac
Fawkes Executable Binary

Бинарник для Windows
Fawkes Executable Binary

Бинарник для Linux
Fawkes Executable Binary

Инструкции по установке Setup Instructions

Исходный код Fawkes на GitHub
Fawkes Source Code on Github, for development


Клоакинг фотографий для защиты от систем распознавания лиц
23 июля 2020
Информационная безопасность,
Open source,
Обработка изображений,
Современные системы распознавания лиц представляют угрозу личной приватности. Уже сейчас такие системы ежедневно сканируют миллионы лиц в Китае, Великобритании и России без их согласия. Поставлена задача, чтобы в следующем году 100% пассажиров в топ-20 аэропортов США незаметно подвергали этой процедуре.

Исследователи из Чикагского университета придумали любопытный алгоритм клоакинга, который позволяет защититься от распознавания лиц.

Дело в том, что системы распознавания лиц берут фотографии для обучения своей системы из ваших открытых данных — в основном, из профилей в социальных сетях и других открытых источников.

Например, крупнейшая система распознавания лиц для обучения использовала более трёх миллиардов фотографий из интернета и социальных сетей. демонстрирует, насколько легко построить такую систему распознавания на снимках из Facebook и «Вконтакте».

Так вот, новый алгоритм Fawkes эффективно подрывает базу обучения «вражеской» нейросети. Перед публикацией каждой фотографии в ней делаются незаметные попиксельные изменения, после чего она становится не то что непригодной для использования при обучении, а буквально портит систему распознавания лиц.

Схема работы Fawkes

Программа Fawkes работает локально на вашем компьютере и выполняет клоакинг фотографий. После обработки вы можете использовать фотографии как угодно — публиковать в социальных сетях, передавать друзьям или распечатывать на бумаге. В любом случае, для распознавания лиц они уже бесполезны, как показала проверка в ходе научного исследования чикагской группы.

Интуитивно понятное пояснение в 2D-пространстве из четырёх признаков A, B, U, T, почему модель, обученная на искажённых фотографиях, не распознаёт лица на оригиналах. Слева — границы принятия решений при обучении на оригиналах, справа — границы принятия решений при обучении после клоакинга

Тестирование показало, что эффект клоакинга трудно распознать при обучении нейросети и он не вызывает ошибок при обучении. Другими словами, операторы системы распознавания лиц не заподозрят ничего неладного. Но просто если кто-то попытается выполнить распознавание на вашем оригинальном изображении (например, с камер наблюдения), поиск по базе не найдёт совпадений.

Fawkes протестирован и показал эффективность 100% против самых известных моделей распознавания Microsoft Azure Face API, Amazon Rekognition и Face++.

Алгоритмы сжатия изображений тоже не портят защиту клоакинга. Исследователи проверяли материал на прогрессивном JPEG, который используется в Facebook и Twitter для пережатия картинок, на уровнях качества от 5 до 95. В общем, сжатие немного ослабляет защиту клоакинга, но при этом ещё более значительно снижается качество распознавания лиц. То есть нашей задачи помех в классификации это не мешает.

Как ни странно, заблюривание фотографий и применение разных графических фильтров тоже не снимает защиту, поскольку по своей сути клоакинг происходит не на уровне пикселей, а на уровне пространства признаков, то есть пиксельные измененимя на самом деле имеют глубокую природу и не стираются в растровом редакторе.

Техническая статья с описанием алгоритма (pdf) будет представлена на ближайшем симпозиуме USENIX по безопасности 12? 14 августа 2020 года.

Кстати, название программы позаимствовано от маски Гая Фокса из фильма «V — значит вендетта».

Скачать программу Fawkes:
Open Source
Обработка изображений
Информационная безопасность
распознавание лиц
V — значит вендетта
Информационная безопасность
Обработка изображений

How to Setup
Fawkes Binary

This application is built for individuals to cloak their images before uploading to the Internet. For more information about the project, please refer to our project webpage.

If you are a developer or researcher planning to customize and modify on our existing code. Please refer to fawkes.

How to Setup


Download the binary following this link and unzip the download file.
Create a directory and move all the images you wish to protect into that directory. Note the path to that directory (e.g. ~/Desktop/images).
Open terminal and change directory to fawkes (the unzipped folder).
(If your MacOS is Catalina) Run sudo spctl --master-disable to enable running apps from unidentified developer. We are working on a solution to bypass this step.
Run ./protection-v0.3 -d IMAGE_DIR_PATH to generate cloak for images in IMAGE_DIR_PATH.
When the cloaked image is generated, it will output a *_min_cloaked.png image in IMAGE_DIR_PATH. The generation takes ~40 seconds per image depending on the hardware.


Download the binary following this link and unzip the download file.
Create a directory and move all the images you wish to protect into that directory. Note the path to that directory (e.g. ~/Desktop/images).
Open terminal(powershell or cmd) and change directory to protection (the unzipped folder).
Run protection-v0.3.exe -d IMAGE_DIR_PATH to generate cloak for images in IMAGE_DIR_PATH.
When the cloaked image is generated, it will output a *_min_cloaked.png image in IMAGE_DIR_PATH. The generation takes ~40 seconds per image depending on the hardware.


Download the binary following this link and unzip the download file.
Create a directory and move all the images you wish to protect into that directory. Note the path to that directory (e.g. ~/Desktop/images).
Open terminal and change directory to protection (the unzipped folder).
Run ./protection-v0.3 -d IMAGE_DIR_PATH to generate cloak for images in IMAGE_DIR_PATH.
When the cloaked image is generated, it will output a *_min_cloaked.png image in IMAGE_DIR_PATH. The generation takes ~40 seconds per image depending on the hardware.

More details on the optional parameters check out the github repo


Fawkes is a privacy protection system developed by researchers at SANDLab, University of Chicago. For more information about the project, please refer to our project webpage. Contact us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).

We published an academic paper to summarize our work "Fawkes: Protecting Personal Privacy against Unauthorized Deep Learning Models" at USENIX Security 2020.

NEW! If you would like to use Fawkes to protect your identity, please check out our software and binary implementation on the website.
This code is intended only for personal privacy protection or academic research.
We are currently exploring the filing of a provisional patent on the Fawkes algorithm.


$ fawkes


-m, --mode : the tradeoff between privacy and perturbation size. Select from min, low, mid, high. The higher the mode is, the more perturbation will add to the image and provide stronger protection.
-d, --directory : the directory with images to run protection.
-g, --gpu : the GPU id when using GPU for optimization.
--batch-size : number of images to run optimization together. Change to >1 only if you have extremely powerful compute power.
--format : format of the output image (png or jpg).

when --mode is custom:

--th : perturbation threshold
--max-step : number of optimization steps to run
--lr : learning rate for the optimization
--feature-extractor : name of the feature extractor to use
--separate_target : whether select separate targets for each faces in the diectory.


fawkes -d ./imgs --mode min

The perturbation generation takes ~60 seconds per image on a CPU machine, and it would be much faster on a GPU machine. Use batch-size=1 on CPU and batch-size>1 on GPUs.
Turn on separate target if the images in the directory belong to different people, otherwise, turn it off.

How do I know my images are secure?

We are actively working on this. Python scripts that can test the protection effectiveness will be ready shortly.
Quick Installation

Install from PyPI:

pip install fawkes

If you don't have root privilege, please try to install on user namespace: pip install --user fawkes.

Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy

Original Cloaked

Original Cloaked

2020 is a watershed year for machine learning. It has seen the true arrival of commodized machine learning, where deep learning models and algorithms are readily available to Internet users. GPUs are cheaper and more readily available than ever, and new training methods like transfer learning have made it possible to train powerful deep learning models using smaller sets of data.

But accessible machine learning also has its downsides. A recent New York Times article by Kashmir Hill profiled, an unregulated facial recognition service that has downloaded over 3 billion photos of people from the Internet and social media and used them to build facial recognition models for millions of citizens without their knowledge or permission. demonstrates just how easy it is to build invasive tools for monitoring and tracking using deep learning.

So how do we protect ourselves against unauthorized third parties building facial recognition models that recognize us wherever we may go? Regulations can and will help restrict the use of machine learning by public companies but will have negligible impact on private organizations, individuals, or even other nation states with similar goals.

The SAND Lab at University of Chicago has developed Fawkes1, an algorithm and software tool (running locally on your computer) that gives individuals the ability to limit how their own images can be used to track them. At a high level, Fawkes takes your personal images and makes tiny, pixel-level changes that are invisible to the human eye, in a process we call image cloaking. You can then use these "cloaked" photos as you normally would, sharing them on social media, sending them to friends, printing them or displaying them on digital devices, the same way you would any other photo. The difference, however, is that if and when someone tries to use these photos to build a facial recognition model, "cloaked" images will teach the model an highly distorted version of what makes you look like you. The cloak effect is not easily detectable by humans or machines and will not cause errors in model training. However, when someone tries to identify you by presenting an unaltered, "uncloaked" image of you (e.g. a photo taken in public) to the model, the model will fail to recognize you.

Fawkes has been tested extensively and proven effective in a variety of environments and is 100% effective against state-of-the-art facial recognition models (Microsoft Azure Face API, Amazon Rekognition, and Face++). We are in the process of adding more material here to explain how and why Fawkes works. For now, please see the link below to our technical paper, which will be presented at the upcoming USENIX Security Symposium, to be held on August 12 to 14.

The Fawkes project is led by two PhD students at SAND Lab, Emily Wenger and Shawn Shan, with important contributions from Jiayun Zhang (SAND Lab visitor and current PhD student at UC San Diego) and Huiying Li, also a SAND Lab PhD student. The faculty advisors are SAND Lab co-directors and Neubauer Professors Ben Zhao and Heather Zheng.

1The Guy Fawkes mask, a la V for Vendetta

In addition to the photos of the team cloaked above, here are a couple more examples of cloaked images and their originals. Can you tell which is the original? (Cloaked image of the Queen courtesy of TheVerge).
Publication & Presentation

Fawkes: Protecting Personal Privacy against Unauthorized Deep Learning Models.
Shawn Shan, Emily Wenger, Jiayun Zhang, Huiying Li, Haitao Zheng, and Ben Y. Zhao.
In Proceedings of USENIX Security Symposium 2020. ( Download PDF here )


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submitted by vfxAlert to u/vfxAlert [link] [comments]

Morrowind 2020 Remastered Mod List By ColdMod

Morrowind 2020 Remastered Mod List By ColdMod
Morrowind 2020 Remastered Mod List
By ColdMod
This installation is intended for Vanilla Morrowind not OpenMW. Install Mod Organizer 2 (MO2) Have it locate your Morrowind installation folder. This is what you’ll be using to install the following mods aside from the first three which are installed manually. MGE XE and the Game Have to be launched through MO2.
  1. Morrowind Code Patch (Install in the same folder as your Morrowind installation. Not the Data Folder.)
  1. MGE XE (Install in the same folder as above. Run the Distant land generator wizard anytime you change any landscape mods. Grass, textures, trees doesn’t matter run it everytime. Under the graphics tab click the checkbox labeled ‘Enable Shaders.’ Click the shader setup button and enable depth of field. Lastly set your display to the proper size of your monitor no smaller and put in your correct aspect ratio. This is the executables window click on it click edit and add MGE XE by click on Binary and locate MGEXEgui.exe. Name it MGE XE click ok. Now you can run MGE XE through MO2. Only run it this way now, same with the game.)
  1. MWSE (Install in the same folder)
  1. Patch for Purists
  1. Morrowind Optimization Patch
  1. Intelligent Textures
  1. Better Bodies (There’s nude or non-nude. I’m not judging. Pick one.)
  1. Mage Robes
  1. Subtle Magic Glow
  1. Better Clothes
  1. More Better Clothes (I know terrible grammar.)
  1. HiRez Better Clothes
  1. Better Morrowind Armor
  1. Better Meshes
  1. Better Robes
  1. Apel’s Rain Replacer
  1. Animation Compilation
  1. Dirnaes Beast Animations
  1. Enhanced Water Shader for MGE XE
  1. Apoapse’s Attack 2.2 (Yes now you can actually kill something at low level and not have to hit it a million times only to miss.)
  1. Silt Strider Bump Mapped
  1. Netch Bump Mapped
  1. Apel’s Fire Retexture
  1. Magic Diversity -COMPLETE-
  1. Soulgem Replacer
  1. On the Rocks Optimized (Download all main files)
  1. Imperial Houses and Forts Retexture – Ordo Arkitektora
  1. Apel’s Lighthouse Retexture
  1. Dwemer Mesh Improvement
  1. Dwemer Ruins Retexture
  1. Full Dwemer Retexture
  1. HD Architecture Meshes (Only download Skar 4096x)
  1. High-Res Skaal Retex
  1. Hlaalu – Arkitektora Vol. 2
  1. Imperial Forts Retexture
  1. Better Bodies – Hand Fixes
  1. Better Bread
  1. Rubber’s Updated Kitchen Kit
  1. Real Signposts
  1. MacKom’s Khajiit
  1. Ket’s Swirlwood Furniture Retexture
  1. Ket’s Paper Lanterns Retexture
  1. Ket’s Potions and Beverages Retexture
  1. Redoran Arkitektora
  1. Vivec and Velothi Arkitektora
  1. Shacks Docks and Ships – Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
  1. Velothi – Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
  1. Daedric Ruins – Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
  1. Sewers - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
  1. Dunmeri Urns – Aestetika Or Vvardenfell
  1. Hlaalu - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
  1. Redoran - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
  1. Telvanni Bump Maps (Download the Main File and the Optional file.)
  1. Telvanni - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell (Download the HQ Main File, the update file and the HQ optional file.)
  1. Correct UV Mudcrabs
  1. Correct UV Rocks
  1. Properly Smoothed Meshes
  1. Ingredients Mesh Replacer
  1. Long Live the Limewire – Retexture
  1. AST Beds Texture Replacer
  1. AOF Containers
  1. Better Kegstands
  1. Arukinn’s Better Books and Scrolls
  1. Improved Kwama Eggs and Egg Sacs
  1. Bloodmoon Hide Replacer BHR
  1. One True Faith – Saints and Frescoes Retexture
  1. Long Live the Glassware – Retexture
  1. Long Live the Plates – Retexture
  1. Improved Better Skulls
  1. Apel’s Various Things – Signs
  1. Unique Finery Replacer UFR
  1. Guar Replacer – Aendemika of Vvardenfell
  1. Alit Replacer – Aendemika of Vvardenfell
  1. Kagouti Replacer - Aendemika of Vvardenfell
  1. Better Spriggans
  1. Nix-Hound Replacer
  1. Clannfear Replacer
  1. Various Little Mods (Download Kwama forager bump mapped)
  1. Luminous Atronachs
  1. Scamp Replacer (Download the main file and the PBR textures.)
  1. Mudcrab Replacer (Same with this one.)
  1. Dying Worlds – Moons Retexture
  1. Pete’s Journal 2018
  1. The Forgotten Shields – Artifacts
  1. Armors Retexture – Outlander Styles
  1. Various Little Mods (Download Colovian Helm and heavy leather boots retexture)
  1. Daedric Lord Armor Morrowind Edition
  1. Ebony Mail Replacer
  1. More Realistic Dwemer Armor
  1. Weapon Sheathing (The following mods have patches for this mod use them. Aside from darknut’s.)
  1. Darknut’s Little Weapons Mod Complete
  1. Adamantiun Axe Replacer
  1. Adamantium Claymore Replacer
  1. Nordic Mesh Improvements
  1. Insanity’s (Dwemer) Weapons of Morrowind- For Morrwind (Download main file and optional file.
  1. Silver Mesh Improvements
  1. Real Reflective Weapons – Iron
  1. Improved Weapon Meshes – Steel
  1. Smooth Glass Weapons
  1. Bonemold Bow Replacer
  1. Oriental Mesh Improvements
  1. Daedric Intervention (Just the weapons)
  1. Improved Weapon Meshes – Ebony
  1. Wooden Staff Replacer
  1. HQ Weapons (Only download Artifacts – Merged and the weapon sheathing patch for artifacts.)
  1. Skies IV
  1. Apel’s Asura Coast and Sheogorath Region Retexture
  1. A Strange Plant
  1. Glow in The Dark
  1. Caverns Bump Mapped (Download the main file and the optional file.)
  1. Comberry Bush and Ingredient Replacer
  1. Hackle-Lo Fixed
  1. Mines and Caverns
  1. Pherim’s Fire Fern – Plant and Ingredient
  1. Underwater Static Replacer
  1. RainSplash
  1. Where Are All the Birds Going (Make sure to download the update!)
  1. Vurt’s Lava and Smoke
  1. Water Life
  1. Improved Argonians
  1. Landscape Retexture (This one install first)
  1. Retvicture Vvardenfell and Solstheim in the original style (Then this one. Install the hq textures first, then the uhd textures.
  1. Dahrk Mods By Melchior (Download AI trees only.)
  1. Mushroom Tree Replacer (Download main file and PBR textures.)
  1. Remiro’s Ascadian Isles Trees (Download the vanilla version.)
  1. Vurts Solstheim Tree Replacer II
  1. Vanilla -Friendly West Gash Tree Replacer
  1. Vurts Bitter Coast Tree II
  1. Vurt’s Grazeland Trees II – Vanilla Friendly Edition (Download main file and update)
  1. Remiro’s Alcohol HD
  1. Vurt’s Ashlands Overhaul (Download the vanilla style)
  1. Bungler’s Bane and Hypha Facia HD
  1. Epic Plants (Download the main file and all the optional files, nothing else)
  1. Djangos Rugs and Tapestries
  1. Aesthesia Groundcover – Grass Mod (Ok download the main file. Extract it to your desktop. Open the folder. Delete the files that have TR in the title. Open the ‘Grass Vanilla’ folder. Move the plug-ins to the main folder that has the meshes and textures. Open the ‘Grass generator config’ folder. Open up the folder ‘Aesthesia grass full 2 parts.’ Move the contents to the main folder you just put the plugins. Now delete the folders that aren’t meshes or textures. Make a new folder named Data. Place everything including the meshes and textures folders into the Data folder. Now back out of all the files and right click the modified plugin. Add to archive. Install to MO2. Do not enable the grass plug-ins in MO2. Instead use your distant land generator wizard in MGE XE and enable the plug-ins in there. Then run the generator.)
  1. Smart Crosshair
  1. MacKom’s Humanoid Heads (Very underrated mod! Please Endorse!)
  1. New Hairs for MacKom Races Redone (Super good and lore friendly! Please endorse!)
That’s it! Hope you enjoy!
submitted by benfarrar87 to Morrowind [link] [comments]

Why Ru may not be entirely to blame for Manila's Maxi Pad Dress not seeing the light of day (aka, The Period Problem)

This is still fresh on the sub's mind, but for the sake of being clear: during All Stars 4 Manila was planning on wearing this Maxi Pad dress for the "Padded for the Gods" runway on All Stars 4. But in a post made after the episode aired, she alleged that Ru told her the look would be "in bad taste" and was told by production not to wear it, which is why she wore a less controversial option.
At the time, pretty much everyone on social media was putting the blame squarely on Ru for keeping Manila from wearing this. But it goes beyond that and has to do with the strict way menstruation and menstrual products are still treated on TV. This issue first came to my attention last week with the most recent episode of Dragula.
Season 3, Episode 5 of Dragula had a challenge where the contestants had to make looks out of garbage. Hollow Eve, an AFAB non-binary performer, was planning on doing a look involving used pads and tampons as a critique of how US laws and society treat women like garbage. It had been a point of drama a few episodes prior that Hollow was keeping used tampons in the freezer of their shared hotel room. And yet when Hollow came out in their outfit (on the right), all pads and tampons used were clean. Hollow was visibly upset during and after the critiques and kept restating their message of the treatment of women. Ultimately they were sent home because of this look.
Pretty much immediately after, people on the Dragula subreddit started to put 2 and 2 together and realize that Hollow was planning on doing a much filthier look for the pad and tampon component. When asked about it on Instagram, Hollow confirmed they were planning on using the bloody tampons, but were told by production they had to tone it down. This wasn't any decision of the Boulet's or producers' tastes, it has to do with US television broadcast standards: Not only are used menstrual products not allowed to be shown on television, you cannot show the color red anywhere near a menstrual product, which is why pad commercials have to use blue liquid on their products. Hollow said in addition to having to use clean menstrual products, they also weren't allowed to use any red makeup.
It's obviously no surprise that the US has always been a bit conservative in what is allowed on TV, but this applies doubly so to women and menstruation. At the time of the Hayes Code, which is the originator of pretty much every conservative content law in film and television, showing menstruation was so far out of the question that the code itself didn't even mention it. This standard has carried on through today and is a part of the taboo of female genitalia in broadcasting, the fact that pads and tampons are taxed as a luxury item, etc etc etc. An Australian company called Libra has started trying to normalize period blood with a commercial showing women and their pads around the color red, and it was immediately met with hundreds of complaints, so this is still an ongoing issue. I also hope you see some of the irony with Hollow trying to do a look criticizing the treatment of women, only to have that look censored on this television platform.
So tying this back to Manila. I don't doubt that Ru told her the pad dress was in bad taste. But it wasn't just Ru's opinion that kept that dress of the runway. It was several producers telling her no, along with television standards of menstruation behind them.
submitted by gizmoman49 to rupaulsdragrace [link] [comments]

Потеряли деньги у псевдоброкера? Псевдоюристы из ЭАЦ помогут потерять еще

Потеряли деньги у псевдоброкера? Псевдоюристы из ЭАЦ помогут потерять еще - развод или правда. Честный отзыв от Baxov.Net

Если по вине брокера-мошенника вы потеряли некоторую сумму денег (а она всегда немалая), естественно, вы хотите деньги вернуть. Вот если ваша потеря более 200 т.р. и не позднее, чем 3 года назад, "ЭАЦ(Экспертно-аналитический центр) - организация под руководством Святослава Горячего, поможет вам вернуть средства из следующих отраслей: Forex, Binary Options, Cryptocurrency."
Хорошее обещание, для многих актуальное. Но можно ли ему верить? Давайте разбираться.
E-mail адреса проекта
[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Не существует

Внимание! мошенники очень часто меняют адреса своих лохотронов. Поэтому название, адрес сайта или email может быть другим! Если Вы не нашли в списке нужный адрес, но лохотрон очень похож на описанный, пожалуйста свяжитесь с нами или напишите об этом в комментариях!
Информация о проекте
В общем-то на фальшивом электронном адресе обзор можно и заканчивать. Просто потому что когда электронного адреса нет, это нехорошо. Но если владельцы проекта указывают заведомо несуществующий, это еще хуже. Это громкое и откровенное выражение намерений.
Но все-таки давайте знакомиться.
Сайт - обычная шаблонная визитка. Но, учитывая специфику деятельности ЭАЦ, он вполне приличный. На первый взгляд. Грамотный текст, спокойный дизайн. Даже назойливого окна с чатом нет - уже уважаю. Но вот если присмотреться...
Например, на сайте есть блог. В нем последние новости обещали публиковать. По факту там три статьи. Опубликованы они 23.03.2020, 08.02.2020 и 19.11.2019. Больше новостей не было? Ладно. А чем объяснить уникальность текстов не более 8%?

А уж как объяснить волшебство, с помощью которого на сайте, который появился не ранее 25.05.2020, статьи опубликованы в марте, феврале и даже в прошлогоднем ноябре?
Как-то я уже не верю такому сайту. А вы?
Некая организация с солидным названием ЭАЦ (Экспертно-аналитический центр) обещает помощь в возврате денег, которые вы потеряли по вине недобросовестных брокеров. Работает целая команда профессионалов - "в компанию входят эксперты с юридическим и финансовым образованием. Специалисты имеют внушительный опыт по возврату средств". Руководит командой Святослав Горячий.

Как ни старайтесь, о юристе Святославе Горячем в интернете не найдете ничего. А вот поиск по фото приведет вас к другому юристу - московскому адвокату Глебу Плесовских. Команда профессионалов - это тоже вымышленные персонажи. Фото надергали в сети, где понравилось - даже со стока, имена и должности придумали. И это второй признак нехороших намерений ЭАЦ. Так можно ли верить обещаниям? А обещают хорошо и складно. Специализация ребят - помощь в возврате денег от мошенников-брокеров. Помогут в таких случаях:
Слив депозита Ваш брокер или аналитик умышленно слил ваш депозит без вашего ведома
Нет ответа Вы сделали депозит и с вами перестали выходить на связь
Серия транзакций Вы сделали несколько платежей, но вся ваша сумма была украдена
Отказ при выводе Ваш брокер или аналитик отказывается выводить ваши деньги
То есть практически со всеми проблемами, с которыми столкнулись у лжеброкера. Только с оговоркой - если ваша потеря больше 200 000 рублей. Меньшая им не интересна. Работают-то за процент от суммы, которую предположительно вам вернут.
Обещают отсутствие предоплат, заключение договора. Здесь некоторое противоречие - работают ребята так, что вам даже из дома выходить не нужно - в онлайне все решится. А договор как подписывать? То ли подпись электронная понадобится, то ли юристы без предоплаты к вам на дом приедут. То ли для красного словца про подписание договора сказано, а все договоренности ограничатся телефонным разговором.
Результатами своей работы команда профессионалов охотно делится:

Немножко странно, что довольных клиентов больше, чем успешно завершенных дел. Ладно, может быть, один клиент много раз приходил. Но ребята снова врут про пять лет работы.
А уж отзывы от признательных клиентов... Их три всего, но и их достаточно.

Вы помните, что Святослав Горячий - это руководитель компании? Можете поверить отзыву, в котором некая молодая-красивая Катя выражает "благодарность Святу"? Это что за фамильярность-панибратство в серьезной конторе?
Да просто всё. Нет конторы. Есть компания жуликов, которая решила, что раз человек был настолько наивен, что лжеброкерам попался, с него можно еще денежек получить безнаказанно. Надо только наврать с три короба. Чем и занимаются.
Контакты проекта
Контактов вроде как полный набор.

Номер телефона есть. Стационарный московский +7 (499) 642-32-94.
Форма обратной связи присутствует.
Даже адрес офиса есть - 115280, г. Москва ул. Ленинская слобода, Д 26. Правда, где в этом здании искать ЭАЦ, почему-то не сказали. Там больше 340 организаций. И это только те, кто в каталоге себя обозначили. Но ЭАЦ среди них нет.
Есть электронный адрес, который просто нарисовали.
Аккаунтов в соцсетях и мессенджерах нет.
Домену 23 дня, он зарегистрирован частным лицом 25.05.2020.
Разоблачение проекта
Вы думаете, тут еще что-то нужно разоблачать? Уже того вранья, о котором сказано, вполне достаточно, чтобы сайт закрыть и со своей проблемой обратиться к реальным юристам. Но это не все, еще есть.
Например, так и непонятно, как же давно вообще ребята работают. Кажется, они сами не в курсе. Смотрите. На главной читаем, что с 2019-го ЭАЦ работает онлайн. При этом опыт успешной работы - 5 лет. То, что сайту не более 23 дней, уже отметили. А вот с организацией совсем непонятно. Та, что указана на сайте, работает с 2004-го года. Так пять лет или шестнадцать трудятся наши профессионалы? Нет ответа. А вот "ЭКСПЕРТНО-АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ЦЕНТР", чьи реквизиты сперли позаимствовали жулики, есть.
ИНН: 7725513115, КПП: 772501001 и ОГРН: 1047796466365 принадлежат АВТОНОМНОЙ НЕКОММЕРЧЕСКОЙ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ "ЭКСПЕРТНО-АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ЦЕНТР". Ее учредитель - АНО "НИСИПП" АВТОНОМНАЯ НЕКОММЕРЧЕСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ "НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ СИСТЕМНЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ ПРОБЛЕМ ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСТВА". А указанная в качестве учредителя на сайте жулья Воронцова Елена Николаевна является гендиректором АНО "ЭАЦ".
Обратите внимание, что организация эта некоммерческая. То есть "организация, не имеющая в качестве основной цели своей деятельности извлечения прибыли. Некоммерческие организации могут создаваться для достижения социальных, благотворительных целей..."
Это как понимать? То есть Святослав Горячий и его команда - это филантропы-альтруисты, робингуды 21-го века? Да нет. Пародия на Остапа Бендера.
На сайте нет ничего что вызывало бы доверие.
Стоит ли верить обещанию, что вы оплатите услугу только в случае, если возврат будет осуществлен? Ни в коем случае! Ведь во всем остальном не было ни слова правды. Как именно обманут?
Жулики, занимающиеся такой деятельностью, работают за процент от суммы, которую вы хотите вернуть. У вас попросят полную и подробную информацию о том, когда, куда и каким образом вы переводили деньги. Потом много раз уточнят детали, попросят скриншоты, адреса сайтов и еще много-много. Это изобразит бурную деятельность. Потом вам сообщат, что - ура! - деньги удалось вернуть, они уже в пути к вам. Но зачислят их на ваш счет после оплаты услуг юристов, которые всей командой трудились, не покладая рук, чтобы возврат состоялся. Оплачиваете, и на этом заканчивается сотрудничество.
Суммы обычно немаленькие. Потому сайты, подобные ЭАЦ (Экспертно-аналитический центр), не живут дольше пары месяцев. Они закрываются, а вместо них создается еще пара-тройка.
Если вы уже стали жертвой жуликоватых брокеров, то на собственном опыте убедились, насколько опрометчиво доверять сайтам, где врут в каждом предложении. Таким, которые обещают много и заманчиво, но ничем свои обещания не подкрепляют. Таким организациям, которые используют чужие реквизиты, фальшивые адреса, выдуманную команду профессионалов, чужие тексты и фотографии, которые сами себе отзывы пишут.
ЭАЦ (Экспертно-аналитический центр) - как раз из таких. Только под обещание вернуть деньги от лжеброкера с вас очень постараются получить еще.
Возможные потери на проекте
Прейскуранта, прайса нет
У вас попросят 10 - 20% от суммы, которую вы хотите вернуть. Но могут назвать ставку больше или меньше - в зависимости от сиюминутных аппетитов жуликов.
Кроме денег потеряете время. Процедуру возврата добровольно переведенных денег нужно начинать как можно быстрее.
Вывод о проекте
Можно ли все-таки вернуть деньги, которые потеряли у псевдоброкеров? Не всегда, сложно, долго, иногда дорого, но все-таки можно. Только не пытайтесь обращаться в ЭАЦ (Экспертно-аналитический центр) и подобные конторки. И никогда ничего не оплачивайте, опираясь лишь на разговор по телефону. Даже если голос в трубке очень приятный, и говорит он очень убедительно.

Остерегайте себя и сбережения вместе с Baxov.Net
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Boolean data type

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In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.



In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true.[1][2] Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970),[3] Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.


The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.[4]

Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

Pascal, Ada, and Haskell

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively.[5] Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false.[6] All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.


Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.[7]
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" }
The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1'
set v "" if { $v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type.[8] It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default.[9] Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false [10] are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans.[11] As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.


Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard[12] which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1)[13], TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0.[14], and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing".[15][16] This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL.[17] As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature.[18] Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.[19]

See also

Data typesUninterpreted
Related topics


  1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.

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